- About this pamphlet
Consumers in New York State are frequently required to participate in escrow
transactions. This pamphlet has been prepared by the New York Lawyers' Fund
for Client Protection as a plain-English guide to the rights of consumers
and law clients, and the fiduciary obligations of escrow agents.
The practical suggestions in this pamphlet are based upon New York laws,
rules and court decisions. Observing them will help consumers avoid
disagreements in escrow transactions, and prevent the misuse or loss of
escrow money and property.
Because escrow agreements are legal contracts that involve important rights
and obligations, the careful consumer will consult a lawyer before
entrusting money or property with an escrow agent.
- What's an escrow?
An escrow is a legal arrangement to help parties perform their contracts and
avoid disagreements. The escrow agreement has three parties: a "depositor",
an "escrow agent" and a "beneficiary".
In the typical escrow, the depositor is required to entrust money or
property with an escrow agent. The escrow agent holds the escrow deposit
until it can be released to the beneficiary upon the happening of some
future event, or the performance of some condition.
A common example involves the down payment in the purchase and sale of a
residence, condominium or cooperative. The contract frequently requires that
the buyer's down payment be paid to the seller's lawyer, in escrow, or to a
real estate broker, pending the title closing.
In this escrow example, the buyer is the depositor, and the seller is the
beneficiary. The seller's lawyer or real estate broker is the escrow agent,
who undertakes to safeguard the down payment in a special bank account until
the contract has been performed, or is canceled by the buyer and seller.
If the purchase goes forward as planned, the escrow agent will release the
down payment to the seller at the title closing. If the buyer and seller
agree to cancel their contract, the escrow agent is usually required to
return the down payment to the buyer.
- What are other examples of escrows?
Other escrows include settlements in personal injury and other court cases;
agreements to distribute property in matrimonial actions; and, in the bulk
sale of business assets, escrows to insure that taxes and business debts
will be paid.
There are also consumer escrows that are regulated by special state laws.
Examples include escrow accounts for rent security deposits; real property
tax escrow accounts required by mortgage lenders; deposits paid to builders
constructing new homes; down payments for interests in homeowners
associations and time-share projects; advance fees paid to automobile
brokers; membership fees paid to health clubs and licensed campgrounds; and
entrance fees and deposits paid on life care community contracts.
- Are written escrow agreements required?
Not in all cases. But someone considering an escrow transaction should
insist that the escrow agreement be in writing, and be reviewed by a lawyer.
Every escrow agreement should contain provisions which set forth:
- the names and addresses of the depositor, the escrow agent and the beneficiary;
- the amount of the escrow deposit;
- the name and address of the bank where escrow money will be deposited, and the title and number of the bank account;
- whether the escrow agent is required to use an interest-bearing account, and how the interest earned on the deposit will be distributed;
- the conditions that must occur or be performed before the escrow agent can release the escrow fund;
- time limits for the performance of these conditions;
- the names and addresses of all persons who will be paid the escrow fund; and
- the duties of the escrow agent in the event the conditions of the escrow agreement cannot be met.
It's also a good practice for the parties, or their attorneys, to require a
copy of the written agreement, and periodic status reports from the escrow
agent regarding the current balance in the escrow account, if any, and its
- Who does an escrow agent work for?
A person who serves as an escrow agent is a fiduciary, with duties to all
parties who have an interest in the escrow property. The most important duty
is to safeguard the escrow property. If it's money, it must be deposited in
a special bank account that's separate from the escrow agent's personal and
An escrow agent should provide the parties with a receipt for the escrow
property, a copy of the escrow agreement and keep complete and accurate
records. Depositors and beneficiaries have a right to a full accounting of
the escrow agent's management of the escrow property.
An escrow agent has the legal duty to comply strictly with the terms and
conditions of the escrow agreement. Escrow property cannot be delivered to
anyone, except in accordance with the provisions in the escrow agreement.
An escrow agent who releases escrow property in violation of an escrow
agreement is subject to money damages in a civil court action brought by any
party who has suffered economic loss because of the agent's breach of duty.
- Are escrow agents paid for their services?
Escrow agents can serve with or without compensation. If an escrow agent
expects to be paid for administering an escrow account or property, the
matter of fees and reimbursement of expenses should be clearly set forth in
the escrow agreement.
- Can escrow agents assert liens against escrow property?
No. An escrow agent can have no claim or lien on the escrow deposit for
services rendered, unless the escrow agreement provides otherwise. The
escrow agent is simply a custodian of the escrow property, which must be
paid out as the escrow agreement provides.
- Are interest-bearing accounts required for escrow deposits?
Not in all cases, but escrow agreements should require interest-bearing
accounts when escrow funds can generate significant interest for one or more
of the parties. For small and short-term escrow deposits, lawyers are
permitted by state law to use so-called "IOLA Accounts". Interest earned on
these IOLA accounts is pooled and used to finance civil legal services for
If you arrange for an interest-bearing bank account, the escrow agent and
bank may require a Social Security or Federal Tax Identification number for
federal and state income tax purposes.
- Can escrow agents keep bank interest?
No. All interest that's earned on an escrow deposit should be paid out in
accordance with the escrow agreement, or to the party whose money generated
the interest. It would be a conflict of interest for an escrow agent, as a
fiduciary, to require that bank interest be treated as compensation for
- If an escrow deposit is stolen, who bears the loss?
Unless an escrow agreement provides otherwise, the loss generally falls on
the party who owned the escrow property at the time of its theft. In the
case of a stolen down payment, that's usually the buyer, who may be asked by
the seller to replace the down payment before title closes. Of course, an
injured party will have the right to seek money damages from the dishonest
- Are there danger signals to watch for?
Yes, and consumers can protect themselves against losses. A deposit of money
with an escrow agent should be made by certified check, for example, and not
with cash. The check should be promptly deposited in a special bank account
identified in the escrow agreement. The depositor should review the
endorsement on the check to make sure that the escrow agent has made the
proper bank deposit. The beneficiary of an escrow agreement should be wary
if an escrow agent delays in releasing escrow property. And a bounced check
from an escrow agent is a signal that escrow money might have been misused.
In these situations, the careful consumer will promptly consult a lawyer.
- What's the Lawyers' Fund For Client Protection?
The New York Lawyers' Fund is a state agency that the legal profession
finances to protect law clients from dishonest conduct in the practice of
The Lawyers' Fund is administered by a court-appointed Board of Trustees
composed of lawyers and nonlawyers. The Trustees are permitted to reimburse
law clients when a lawyer in New York State misuses or steals client money
and property in the practice of law.
The maximum limit on awards is $100,000 per client loss. To qualify, the
loss must occur in the practice of law, and in an attorney-client
Reimbursement procedures are simple and cost-free. In addition, lawyers who
help clients seek reimbursement cannot charge legal fees for this
Losses reimbursed by the Lawyers' Fund include the theft of down payments
and other escrows in real property transactions, estate and trust assets,
personal injury settlements and money embezzled from clients in investment
transactions. The Lawyers' Fund cannot settle fee disputes, or compensate
for a lawyer's malpractice or neglect.
A law client seeking reimbursement must also file a written complaint with
the appropriate Attorney Grievance (Disciplinary) Committee in the locality
where the lawyer practices, and cooperate fully with the Committee's
investigation of the complaint. Awards from the fund are generally made
after a lawyer's disbarment, and where it appears that the lawyer is unable
to make restitution.
Application forms, information and other help is available from the offices
of New York Lawyers' Fund, at 119 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12210.
Telephone (518) 434-1935 or 1-800-442-FUND.